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Google Scholar | SSRN Page

“Control Versus Execution: Endogenous Appropriability and Entrepreneurial Strategy,” (with K. Ching and J. Gans), Industrial and Corporate Change, 2018. 

“The Impact of the Entry of Biosimilars: Evidence from Europe,” (with F. Scott-Morton and A. Stern), Review of Industrial Organization (Forthcoming) | working paper

“Patents, Papers, and Secrecy: Contracting over the Disclosure of Scientific and Commercial Knowledge,” (with J. Gans and F. Murray), Research Policy, 2017.

"Contracting Over the Disclosure of Scientific Knowledge: Intellectual Property and Academic Publication" (with F. Murray and J. Gans), Research Policy, 2017. | working paper

Of Mice and Academics: Examining the Effect of Openness on Innovation,” (with P. Aghion, M. Dewatripont, F. Murray and J. Kolev), American Economic Journal: Policy, 2016. | working paper

Defining Clusters of Related Industries,” (with M. Delgado and M.E. Porter), Journal of Economic Geography, 2015. | working paper

"Where is Silicon Valley?" (with J. Guzman), Science, 2015

Intellectual Property and the Evolution of Scientific Journals as Knowledge Platforms,” (with F. Murray and D. Fehder), International Journal of Industrial Organization, 2014. | working paper

Clusters, Convergence, and Economic Performance” (with M.E. Porter and M. Delgado), Research Policy, 2014. | working paper

Grand Innovation Prizes:  A Theoretical, Normative, and Empirical Evaluation,” (with F. Murray, G. Campbell, and A. McCormack), Research Policy, 2012. | working paper

“Growing Stem Cells:  The Impact of the Bush Stem Cell Policy on the Geography of Scientific Discovery,” (with J. Furman and F. Murray), Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 2012. | working paper 

Climbing Atop the Shoulders of Giants:  The Impact of Institutions on Cumulative Knowledge Production,” (with J. Furman), American Economic Review, 2011. | MIT D-Space Open Access

The Public and Private Sectors in the Process of Innovation: Theory and Evidence from the Mouse Genetics Revolution,” (with P. Aghion, M. Dewatripont, J. Kolev, and F. Murray), American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 2010. | MIT D-Space Open Access 

Clusters and Entrepreneurship,” (with M. Delgado and M.E. Porter), Journal of Economic Geography, 2010. | MIT D-Space Open Access

Is There a Market for Ideas?” (with J. Gans), Industrial and Corporate Change, 2010. | working paper

Disclosure or Secrecy?:  The Dynamics of Open Science,” (withA. Mukherjee), International Journal of Industrial Organization, 2009. | working paper

Complementarity Among Vertical Integration Decisions: Evidence from Automobile ProductDevelopment,” (with S. Novak), Management Science, 2009. | working paper

How Does Outsourcing Affect Performance Dynamics?  Evidence from the Auto Industry,” (with S. Novak), Management Science, 2008. | working paper

The Impact of Uncertain IP Rights on the Market for Ideas: Evidence from Patent Grant Delays,” (with J. Gans and D. Hsu), Management Science. 2008. | working paper

“Do Formal Intellectual Property Rights Hinder the Free Flow of Scientific Knowledge?: An Empirical Test of the Anti-Commons Hypothesis,” (with F. Murray),  Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2007. | working paper

Do Scientists Pay to Be Scientists?”  Management Science, 2004. | working paper

“When Does Funding Research by Smaller Firms Bear Fruit?: Evidence from the SBIR,” (with J. Gans), Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 2003. | working paper

The Product Market and the Market for Ideas: Commercialization Strategies for Technology Entrepreneurs,” (with J. Gans), Research Policy, 2003. | working paper

When Does Start-up Innovation Spur the Gale of Creative Destruction?,” (with J. Gansand  D. Hsu), RAND Journal of Economics, 2002. | working paper

The Impact of Information Technology on Emergency Health Care Outcomes,” (with S. Athey), RAND Journal of Economics, 2002. | working paper

The Determinants of National Innovative Capacity,” (with J. Furman and M.E. Porter), Research Policy, 2002. | working paper

Innovation:  Location Matters,” (with M.E. Porter), Sloan Management Review, Summer 2001.  Reprinted in Innovation:  Driving Product, Process, and Market Change ed. Edward B. Roberts, Jossey-Bass.

Untangling the Origins of Competitive Advantage,” (with I. Cockburn and R. Henderson), Strategic Management Journal, 2000.  Reprinted in The Strategic Management Society Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Capabilities:  Emergence, Development and Change ed. Constance E. Helfat, Blackwell Publishers. | MIT D-Space Open Access

Innovation Incentives, Compatibility, and Expropriation as an Antitrust Remedy: The Legacy of the Borland/Ashton-Tate Consent Decree,” (with C. Fazio) Antitrust Law Journal, 2000.

Incumbency and R&D Incentives: Licensing the Gale of Creative Destruction,” (with. J. Gans),  Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 2000. | working paper

Market Segmentation and the Sources of Rents from Innovation:  Personal Computers in the Late 1980s,” (with T. Bresnahan and M. Trajtenberg), RAND Journal of Economics, 1997. | MIT D-Space Open Access

Urban Productivity and Factor Growth in the Late Nineteenth Century,” (with R. Bostic  and  J. Gans), Journal of Urban Economics, 1996.   


The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity Revisited, (Edited with Josh Lerner), University of Chicago Press, 2012.

Biological Resource Centers: Knowledge Hubs for the Life Sciences, Brookings Institution, 2004.


“The Principle of Relatedness,” (with C. Hildago, et al), Proceedings of the International Conference on Complex Systems, 2018.

“The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Innovation,” (with I. Cockburn and R. Henderson), NBER Economics of Artificial Intelligence volume, forthcoming.

“Strategy for the Start-Up,” (with Joshua Gans and Erin Scott), Harvard Business Review, Anchor Spotlight, 2018.

"The Empirics of Social Progress: The Interplay between Subjective Well-Being and Societal Performance," (with D. Fehder and M.E. Porter), AEA Papers and Proceedings (Forthcoming).

"Do Entrepreneurs Need a Strategy?," (with J. Gans and E. Scott), in Harvard Business Review, 2018.

"Endogenous Appropriability," (with J. Gans), American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 2017| working paper

Nowcasting and Placecasting Growth Entrepreneurship,” (with J. Guzman), in Measuring Entrepreneurial Businesses: Current Knowledge and Challenges, NBER Volume, forthcoming.

"Multiple Paths to Value: Test Two, Choose One," (with J. Gans), IESE Insight, Second Quarter 2017.

A New View of the Skew: A Quantitative Assessment of the Quality of American Entrepreneurship,” (with C. Fazio, J. Guzman and F. Murray). Kauffman Foundation New Entrepreneurial Growth volume, 2016.

The Nature and Incidence of Software Piracy,” (with S. Athey), in Economics of Digitization, edited by A. Goldfarb, S. Greenstein and C. Tucker, NBER Volume, 2015.

Social Progress Index 2014 Methodological Report,” (with A. Wares, S. Orzell and P. O’Sullivan), Social Progress Imperative, 2014.

Social Progress Index 2014 Report,” (with M.E. Porter and M.Green), Social Progress Imperative, 2014.

Social Progress Index 2013 Report,” (with M.E. Porter and R. Loria), Social Progress Imperative, 2013. 

Copyright in the Digital Era,” National Academies STEP Board, 2013.

Digitization, Innovation and Copyright:  What is the Agenda?” Strategic Organization, Editorial Essay, (with S. Greenstein and J. Lerner), 2013.

“Why was Rate and Direction so Important?  Reflections for the NBER 50th Anniversary Conference in Honor of The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity,” (with N. Rosenberg), 2012.

More for the Research Dollar,” (with J. Furman and F. Murray), Nature, 2010.

Finding the Endless Frontier:  Lessons from Life Sciences for the Energy Innovation System,” (with I. Cockburn and J. Zausner), Accelerating Energy Innovation: Lessons from Multiple Sectors, edited by R. Henderson, NBER volume, 2010.

Moving to a New Global Competitiveness Index,” (with M.E., Porter, C. Ketels and M. Delgado,” Global Competitiveness Report 2008, World Economic Forum, 2008.

The Globalization of Biotechnology:  Science-Driven Clusters in a Flat World,” (with A. Loffler and R. Hermans), National Academies STEP Project on Globalization, 2008.

When Ideas are Not Free:  The Impact of Patents on Scientific Research,”  (with F. Murray), Innovation Policy and the Economy, 2007.

Economic Experiments:  The Role of Entrepreneurship in Economic Prosperity,” Kauffman Foundation Thoughtbook, 2005.

All Are Patent Examiners Equal?:  Examiners, Patent Characteristics and Litigation Outcomes,” (joint with I. Cockburn and S. Kortum), Intellectual Property in the Knowledge-Based Economy, National Academy of Sciences, 2003.

Managing Ideas:  Commercialization Strategies for Biotechnology,” (with J. Gans), ICFAI Journal of Intellectual Property Rights, 2003.

Ranking National Innovative Capacity:  Findings from the National Innovative Capacity Index,” (with M. Porter), Global Competitiveness Report 2003.

“Biological Resource Centers:  An Economic Perspective,” Biological Resource Centers:  From Concept to Reality, American Type Culture Collection, 2003.

“The Impact of Location on Innovation:  Findings from the National Innovative Capacity Index,” (with M. Porter), Global Competitiveness Report 2002.

“National Innovative Capacity,” (with M. Porter), Global Competitiveness Report 2001.

Patient Welfare and Patient Compliance: An Empirical Framework for Measuring the Benefits of Pharmaceutical Innovation,” (with P. Ellickson and M. Trajtenberg), Medical Care Output & Productivity, NBER/CRIW Conference volume, 2001.

The Adoption and Impact of Advanced Emergency Response Services,” (with S. Athey),   The Economics of Non-Profit Hospitals, NBER Volume, 2000.

The Drivers of National Innovative Capacity: Implications for Spain and Latin America,”  (with M. Porter and J. Furman), Keys to the World Economy, 2000.

Understanding the Determinants of National Innovative Capacity: Implications for Central European Economies” Wirtschaftspolitische Blaetter, 2000.

Information Technology and Training in Emergency Call Centers,” Industrial Relations Research  Association Papers and Proceedings, June 1999.

"Incentives and Focus In University and Industrial Research:  The Case of Synthetic Insulin,"  The University-Industry Interface and Medical Innovation, edited by Annetine Gelijns and Nathan Rosenberg, Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press, 1995.


“Foundations of Entrepreneurial Strategy,” (with J. Gans and J. Wu), revised and resubmitted. 

The State of American Entrepreneurship? New Estimates of the Quantity and Quality of Entrepreneurship for 15 US States, 1988-2014,” (with J. Guzman), revising for resubmission.

The Determinants of National Competitiveness,” (with M.E. Porter, M. Delgado and C. Ketels), under submission. 


"Hidden in Plain Sight: Venture Growth Capital With and Without Venture Capital," (with C. Catalini and J. Guzman), MIT Working Paper. 

"The role of universities in local entrepreneurial ecosystems," (with V. Tartari), MIT Working Paper.